Division of thoughts and philosophy in the early days of Chinese civilization
August 01, 2023, 10:30 Source: "China Social Sciences", August 1, 2023, Issue 2703 Author: Wang Chuanlin

From "knotting rope" to "Book Deed Carving",From "text records" to "countless registered number",Digital thinking of ancient ancestors gradually moves from image to abstraction,Gradually from symbolic to logic。Number of thinking is a thinking paradigm for the ancient ancestors to recognize the world from a few and a few times.,Among them, penetrating the theory of epistemology、Theoretical path and historical logic of cosmic theory and value theory。Universe endless,Digest of Yingxu。Number is surpassing、Concept,It's specific、Quantitative;,Numbers and numbers become ancient ancestors to open chaos、Knowing the paradigm and tools of nature and the universe。

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From the observation ratio to the viewing number,The cognitive direction and logical path of ancient number thinking are gradually presenting;,Ancient number thinking is intuitive、Sensory and Similar Specifications、Reason and abstraction。Where,The observation of the ancients includes the intuition of its own body and the comparison and imagination of Zhou Tianhua。From intuitive、Experience to speculation、Reason,The birth of ancient thinking experienced different periods,presents different theoretical styles and theoretical traits。

The emergence of numbers and the use of numbers has become the basic means of ancient ancestors from perceptual speculation to rational abstraction.,From the divination from the Xiashang period to the calculation of the number of times when the Shang and Zhou dynasties,People eliminate "Witch Charm" through several times of thinking,Wake up abstract thinking and theoretical rationality。Western Zhou to Spring bet365 live casino games and Autumn Period,People recognize the number of them by observing all things in the world,The number of intuition and experience will be、Quantity and several times pushing to the height of natural rationality and given by reflection to the meaning of the Tao,Therefore, the meaning of the number and speculation of the number of figures。Observation of all the considerable things and the considerable image,Performance and described phenomenon from this image,So as occasionally、Film number、Bid virtue,Discover nature in deeper、Insight of the universe。Division of several times,Director's trip; without "numbers", it is unknown,It is difficult to do without "numbers";,People know a few degrees to eliminate the patient。

  Numbers are the concept, and quantity is scale 

Numbers can be used as the concept of the phenomenon to reach the essence of the phenomenon,Numbers are present as a number of people cognitive world、Body、Emotional、The scale of moral and ethics。People are based on intuition and experience,Intellectual and concepts formed by the number of unity and the number of objects,Volumes intuitive、Experience、Abstract and integration creates a special number of symbols and quantity standards for sending apartments。Heaven and Earth 氤氲,Mixed everything,People take numbers and numbers as the concept and scale,Cognitive order of all existence and everything in heaven and earth,So straps life、Human Lun、Political and Social Order。

Ancient period,The ancestors have a few degrees of thinking through the rope notes,By observation。Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods,The "Living Two" of "Lao Tzu" and the "Two Ethics and Four Elephants" of "Zhou Yi" have touched the number of cosmic generation theory based on the number of number of generation.,The "Nine Nine Nine" and "Severe Number" of "Pipe" more systematically reflect bet365 Play online games the multiple and multiplication thoughts of people at that time。At the same time,People pass the interception as the law,Blowing the sound of test,Three -point profit or loss,Seeking to law on the string,Form a clear concept of number and scores。From Tianyi、Di Er derived the strange number of yang、The even number is Yin,The concept of the number of yin and yang of the heavens and the earth,Make the number of strange puppets not only full of natural rationality,and overflowing humanistic value and poetic traits。Qin and Han Dynasties,People take "sound as the law,as a degree ",Through the number of heaven and man、Tianzheng ratio、Habitat ratio and recognize the natural world,Construction meaning world and value world。

  Number is the root, standing in one 

"Number" contains the meaning of this root。Look from the dimensions of nature,Number is natural plan,Number is the reflection of the essentially prescribed natural things。Especially in the eyes of people during the Shang and Zhou dynasties,The essential prescribed of the propyration、The regularity is natural plan、Show of Tiandao。

The ancients used several words,Send the road to the number; from one to 10,Numbers become natural rationality、One is the original、The most basic language symbol of ethical rationality and political system and rationality。One is the original,Number from one。"Lao Tzu" said "Dao Shengyi","Zhouyi · Fairy" said "Tianyi","Zhuangzi · Qiwu Theory" said "Daotong is one","Huangdi Nei Jing · Jade Edition Theory" said "Tao in one","Huainanzi · Astronomical Training" says "Tao in one","Said the text and the word" says "one: but the first is too at first,Taoism is one,Division of the world,Turn into everything "and so on,See "One" with the original original、Generation、order、Tao、Frequently、Good and other meaning。Actually,Ancient people see the ontology of "One"Bet365 app download 、The righteousness of the foundation also see the beauty of "ten"、Finally Ten ",Proposed "One Yee,All things of all things also "" The number started in one,Finally Ten ",and regard "Five" as the medium,The value concept of Chongzhong Shangwu formed。Number is the root, standing in one;数即Tao,Tao is the number; the Tao is presented in all things,Numbers bloom in the measurement。The emergence of numbers and numbers makes all things in the world get rid of chaos and disorder,Makes all things in the world present the essence and truth。In other words,Discovery of the root nature of the number to open up a new path for the ancients to unveil the nature and truth of nature and the universe,Reflected the depth of the ancients cognitive nature and the universe,Reflexing the ability of the ancients、Value thinking and logical thinking。

 Optical knowledge, digital education skills 

"Number is the object of knowledge",Opinion with knowledge and skills。Numbers as knowledge,originated from ancient daily production experience,3851_3875。

Numbers as knowledge,Experience、theoretical、Technology、Career、Basic features such as teaching,"Zhou Li" list、筮、musician、Situ and others confirmed this meaning。From divination to 蓍、筮Alit,Skills、Occupation and teaching gradually appear。From five sounds to eight sounds,The number of sound rhythms is a unique presentation of all things in the world,Complex the knowledge of the rhythm with the rhythm skills。The "number" of the Confucian "six arts" and the "number" of the Confucian "six arts",Puzzle,Numerous skills。Just,Numbers are very different as the skill and number of educational skills,The former emphasizes empirical、Pure Sisi and Abstraction,The latter emphasizes understanding、Fusion and shaping。Numbers present the theory as the knowledge、Reason and objective,Numbers as the combination of sensuality and rationality as the skill,Is the pure maturity bet365 live casino games of the skill、The artistic and art blooming degree of art。Although the number as knowledge and skills is preached,but the number of numbers as the essential prescribedness and skills is difficult to teach; Mencius said, "Zi Micheteri Wheels and Man's Rules,Can't make people cleverly "and the wheel flat said,",You can't speak,3872_3884。Another,Come looking at it,The "six arts" of the pre -Qin Confucianism (Li、Le、Shooting、Royal、Book、Number) and the "Four Arts" of ancient Greece (astronomy、Music、Geometry、Arithmetic) Little and Great Tongli,Just go to mathematics with Pythagras school、Geometry and philosophy are slightly different,Pre -Qin Confucianism to Knowledge、Technology and Ethics。

 Taking the law naturally, the use of numbers 

Ancient ancestors facing the increasingly complicated daily life production urgent need to solve the way,The emergence of knot rope notes reflects the primitive and simple thinking and the cuteness of the digital philosophy,presents a clear practical value orientation。

Shang Zhou period,Ancient ancestors insight from the number and number of natural rationality and the spirit of heaven and earth, and interpreted moral rationality and ethics,At the same time, the number and number of numbers and numbers with morality and ethics。Therefore,The existing natural rationality carried by the number and number in their eyes,It is valuable and rational; where,Natural rationality is the root of value rationality,Value rationality through morality、Ethical rationality and institutional rationality reflected。Actually,Discovery and use of numbers and numbers not only the historical process of the ancients to dissolve the "witch charm",and reflect the development process of ancient people's philosophical thinking from sensual speculation to rational abstraction。"Zhouyi · Family Ci" said "Great Knowing", "Participate in Wu to change,Issues;bet365 best casino games ,Sui to become the text of the world; extremely number,Sui Ding the Elephant of the World ","Ji Gua · Xiang Zhuan" said "There is water on the Ze on the Zeba,Section; gentleman in order to make a few degrees,Disciplinary Bank "、"Saying Gua" (Saint) "Talling the two places and relying on the number"。The number of saints is poor in all things, and the natural rationality is interpreted with mathematics and numbers、Law and order and push it into daily life,Make it the origin of the value of humanity and king。Western Han Dynasty Confucianism Dong Zhongshu said "Number of Relief System,Taking the Heaves and "Ancient Sages,Due to the number of days stop,Think of the Cuplel ",It is clarified that the value logic theory of humanity and the king of the world from the number of days。and,The ancients thought "the world,Nothing of them ",Proposal to take the law of nature,For the use of numbers。For example,Qin Chu and the world,Unified measurement,"Six as a discipline,French crowns are all six inches,Six feet of public,Six feet is step,Take Six Horse "。Obviously,In the eyes of the ancients,Rhythm and balance are rooted in the number,And the root nature of the permissions、Several degrees of aesthetics and the practicality of tools。

Look at it historically,Si Wei Meng 蘖 in ancient times,Growing at the occasion of Shang and Zhou dynasties,Prosperity in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods,Developed in the Qin and Han Dynasties。From ancient times to Western Zhou Dynasty to East Han,Du Siwei as a historical thinking paradigm,Finton by several degrees、Digital and systematic theoretical fortunes will cause thinking from chaos to clear,Try to try to pass several degrees、Systematic and metaphysical thinking tentacles search for all things in the world、Moral rationality and political laws and internal associations。Follow it,Numerous philosophy has emerged as a historic Bet365 app download spirit of the era,Based on a digitalization、Systematic and metaphysical rational thinking develops into nature、Body、The theoretical system of morality and political integration。Actually,Ancient ancestors explored the essence of natural spirit、Law and presentation at the same time,also expose the essence of your own spirit、Law and presentation paradigm。So say,Nature philosophy is the learning of natural spirit,It is also the learning of human spirit。

  (The author is the "number of days、Personal and Political Affairs: The person in charge of Dong Zhongshu's Philosophy ""、Professor of Qufu Normal University) 

Editor in charge: Zhang Jing
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