The concept and method of image folklore
August 01, 2023 10:13 Source: "Chinese Social Sciences", August 1, 2023, Issue 2703, author: Wang Jiahua

Images are an important way for humans to grasp the world,In terms of spreading knowledge and expression meaning,The important function and value of irreplaceable text。As the historian of the Southern Song Dynasty, Zheng Yong said in "Tongzhi · Tu Trees":,Academic Large ";,Do not do what you do to do,No diagram can also。If you want to become a career in the world,There is no picture but feasible to the world ","Non -Figure,Can't give up ";" Non -Figure,No need for it ";" Non -Figure,No need to "。For a long time,The influence of the traditional and light image tradition,Except for a small number of disciplines such as art history,Images have not received due attention in academic research。until the 20th century,With the movie、TV、The development and popularization of technologies such as photography,Especially the rapid development of digital technology in recent decades,We started to enter an unprecedented "reading picture" era,"Reading Picture" is increasingly becoming a popular and fashion。In this background,A clear "image steering" gradually appeared in the academic world.,"Image" gradually becomes a popular topic that has attracted much attention,Affects to philosophy、Literature、History、Archaeological、Art、Aesthetics、Anthropology and other humanities fields,All kinds of results have sprung up like mushrooms。

Compared with other humanistic disciplines,Folklore is a learning with the people's life as the main discussion,focusing on the daily life of the people and the logic of their lives。For people's lives,Images are definitely indispensable components。Regardless of the movie widespread today、TV、Photography and other images presentation form,The life of the people in the traditional era,Bet365 lotto review The image is also everywhere,Lunar paintings posted during the New Year、Worship of the ancestor's home hall painting、Worship the god code of the gods、Stove head paintings on the stove、murals on the shadow wall、Embroidered portraits in the novel。Even so,"Image" has not become an important topic for folklore research。Although as early as 2011,Professor Zhao Shiyu of Peking University is in a lecture entitled "The meaning of the Folk School of Images",Elaborate the significance of the image to folklore,But the study of the folk customs in the image,But I haven't received much attention,Especially the image theoretical research from the perspective of folklore is obviously insufficient。Therefore,Under the background of the era of "image turning" and humanities,In today's today, the folklore is increasingly moving towards the "front desk",Folklores need to include "image" into the scope of research and establish a set of their own image research methods。The gratifying is,Some scholars have made many efforts in this regard and have achieved a series of research results,Ru Xiaoshan University Professor Wang Xiaobing's major national science project "Overseas Tibetan Rare Chinese Folk Literature and Cultural Relics Information、Research and Database Construction ",and the "Overseas Tibetan Chinese Folk Culture Rare Document" series and related research results published by this project,Focus on image forms such as "Miao Maps", "Export Painting", "Farming and Weaving Pictures" collected overseas。Another,The national social science project undertaken by the author "Collection of ancient Chinese farming images、Turn and Study ",I also made some efforts in this regard。

The reason why the image can become a research object and topic of folklore,The reason why the image can reflect the life of the people,Directly related to the nature of the image itself。First,The image and text have a common origin,All have an important role in carrying and recording bet365 live casino games information。Regardless of Chinese and foreign,There have been an era of graphic integration,For example, the original rock painting、Pottery pattern, etc.,After these images are generated based on these images,"Japanese" and "Month" in Chinese is a typical manifestation。After the text appears,Images still play an important information bearing function,and greatly make up for the lack of text expression,For example, Zhang Yanyuan in the Tang Dynasty once said in "The Book of Famous Painting","No need to pass on its intention,Therefore, there is a book;,Therefore, there are paintings ","Xuanbu is more than words,Do not be good at painting ","Remember to spread it, so narrate about it,Can't carry its appearance,Eroticon is chanting its beauty,Can't prepare its image,The system of the picture can be both "。Facts,From the perspective of screen performance,Many paintings have indeed carried rich folk information,For example, various custom paintings after the Song Dynasty,Specific paintings such as "Qingming Shanghe Tu", "Ship Lang Picture" and paintings of various "Murata" themes。Next,It is also more important,Image itself is an indispensable part of the people's life。Taking New Year's Painting as an example,It is an integral part of the traditional Chinese New Year's custom,Except for individual people who encounter new funerals,If the New Year's New Year painting,What will I always feel less。Another example is all kinds of god code、Water and land painting, etc.,It is part of the "sustenance" of the gods and the sacrifice ceremony,"present" without idols, etc.,Entry activities cannot be carried out normally。That is to say,Application of various image forms in people's lives,It is an integral part of "folklore" or an indispensable phenomenon of a folk customs。Therefore,Use images to "evidence",Or "reflect" the life of the people through the image,Is completely Bet365 lotto review feasible,This has laid legality and feasibility for the development of image folklore research。

Image folklore,That is the folk science research of images,Just use image as a research theme,Discuss the topic with "lifestyle" as the core,Use the concepts and methods of folklore to discuss and analyze it,To understand the people’s life logic, ideological emotion, etc.。The combination of "image" and "folklore",There are two main research paths。1 is to evidence "vulgar" or "vulgar" with "vulgar",That is to present a specific custom of a specific era through the specific picture and content performance in a specific image,Or understand the specific customs in the picture through the description of specific customs。This is also the most important way for folk study research on images,Especially in the image field of the historical period。Specifically,This research path,Mainly upholds the number of image evidence of image evidence,The images are about to be used as a historical material like text,Use Figure、Method of the exploration of text,Discuss and analyze the relevant folk things in the historical period。For example, based on "Qingming Shanghe Tu" as the data basis,The clothing reflected in it、Entertainment、Banquet and other customs to discuss; take the relevant opera performance scene in the late Qing Dynasty as an example,Dressing and dressing、History of local drama、External communication of opera conducting detailed analysis。Compared with text,Images have intuitive and clear features,Especially when expressing non -abstract information,Therefore, analysis of related folk customs based on image,More vivid and vivid,and to a large extent to make up for the shortcomings of text expression。Second is to discuss and analyze the image in the specific folk customs "scene",This should be the number of research roads that are more dominant in image folklore research,Although bet365 live casino games compared to "evidence of evidence",At present, there are relatively few research in this area。Han Congyao pointed out in "History of Chinese Image Culture · Image theory",Each or each set of images is not produced out of thin air,There are specific creations、Show、Communication、Use the context,There are specific creative motivations、Sponsor、Creator、time and space background、Art style、Communication path、Functional purpose、Social response, etc. -Although not every image will exist or involve all of the above -mentioned elements,There are technical forms、Constitutional form、Three forms of social form and the field of production、Your own field、The field of communication is three fields。Therefore,Place the image in its specific folk context,Compared with the performance of the image screen to prove "Vulgar",It is easier to get richer "folk customs" and "life" information,Can better understand the logic of people's lives。For example, the New Year painting,Analysis of the relevant use of New Year's paintings in a specific community,Who made it specifically、Who Buy、When to buy、What kind of performance theme is purchased、When will post post、Where to post it、How to post、How do people think of these years painting and so on,You can use New Year painting as a "mirror",Reflects the annual customs of people in a specific area、Aesthetic form、Thought and Emotion、Psychological cognition and other rich information。

Corresponding to the above two research paths,Image folklore learning can adopt two research methods of "ancient" and "today"。Ancient,Mainly for historical images,That is the graphic interoperability、Literature -based method,Discuss and analyze specific folk customs in the image,Therefore, to understand and understand the lifestyle of the people in the traditional era。Today,The field survey method adopted by folk customs,Go in the folk bet365 live casino games context of in -depth images,Two methods: through in -depth interviews and participation observation,In -depth understanding of the specific application and value significance of a person in a certain area in a specific area。Of course,Literature research and field inspection are not completely separated。Images of some historical periods,For example, late Qing、Some image forms in the Republic of China,Due to not far today,The interview can still get useful information。Even the image form that is relatively long is long -distance,Ruhan portrait stone,Because the people of ancient and modern people have not changed fundamentally in the concept and attitude towards death,By still existing in certain regions today、The phenomenon of using stone portrait in the tomb for interviews,To a certain extent, you can still "remember" the psychological world of the Han Dynasty。Some images that are still widely used in today's life,For example, God code、Water and land painting, etc.,There are also related records in literati notes and other documents,Consultation related literature,It can also deepen the understanding of today's image use。

Compared with the image research of other disciplines,Image studies of folklore studies have their own subject characteristics。For example, compared with image history,Image studies of folklore should pay more attention to the present,Image studies of folklore should pay more attention to the present。Compared with art history,Folk Studies are more concerned about those image forms that are closely related to the people's lives,For example, the New Year painting、God code, etc.,instead of those works with "fame"。Compared with philosophy,Image studies of folklore studies are more concerned about "living" "life",instead of abstract thoughts and concepts。Of course,This does not mean that the research of image folklore should be self -proclaimed,should be fully absorbed、Drawing on the relevant theories and methods of bet365 Play online games other disciplines。For example, the lines of images in art research、Color、composition、The subject analysis of theme, etc.。As a "art" creation,Image, especially its own form and "language" logic,One of the important performances is "programming",I don’t understand this,It may make some common sense errors。Other analysis of image themes and symbolic significance of image science,History of literature research on image context and "recovery" analysis,Analysis of the specific shape and context of the human science,can all bring help and enlightenment to the folk studies of images。

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(The author is a professor at the Confucian Higher Research Institute of Shandong University) 

Editor in charge: Zhang Jing
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